We investigate the cosmological perturbations based on the f(R) gravity theory. Comparing the large angular scale CMBR observation we obtain several important constraints on the inflation model based on the f(R) gravity theory: the ordinary slow-roll assumption during the inflation with the Zel’dovich spectral conditions for the scalar and the tensor-type structures yields R2 gravity as the unique candidate. Also, the considered model predicts the nearly scale-invariant Zel’dovich spectra. We derive the strong constraints on the coupling constants of the R2 term and the energy scale during the inflation using the COBE-DMR observations. The result shows the gravitational wave contribution is very small. Therefore, future observations of the spectral indices and the gravitational wave contribution to CMBR temperature and polarization anisotropies will subject the current inflation models to a test.