The setting behavior of fast-setting calcium phosphate cement (FSCPC) with mineral phase of bone was investigated to evaluate the possible value of the CPC for medical and dental application. Various aspects of the setting behavior such as setting time, mechanical strength and phase change of cement with time were measured by the Vicat needle method, diametral tensile strength measurement, and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. The change of microstructure during the setting process was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The setting time of the CPC was 10-15min. As a result of its fast setting, set specimens of FSCPC showed high mechanical strength. Powder XRD analysis revealed faster conversion of FSCPC into HAP. SEM observation showed that the specimens are mainly formed with micropores and crystallites, and the phase composition of the set specimens is mainly low-crystallinity HAP at last.