The feasibility of calcium carbonate-based cements involving the re-crystallization of metastable calcium carbonate varieties has been demonstrated. Two cement compositions were obtained by mixing either calcium carbonate phases (cement A) or a calcium carbonate and a calcium phosphate phase (cement B) with an aqueous media. These cements set and hardened after 30 minutes and 90 minutes respectively. The final composition of cement A was calcite and aragonite whereas cement B lead to a carbonated apatite analogous to bone mineral. Despite poor mechanical properties the presence of a high carbonate content in the final phase might be of interest to increase the cement resorption rate and to favour its replacement by bone tissue. First assays of implantation performed on fresh anatomical pieces (fresh cadavers) at 37°C revealed important advantages of such cement compositions: easiness of use, rapid setting, good adhesion to bone, very good homogeneity and stability of the cement.