High resolution X-ray CT is a powerful means for analyzing comprehensive ceramic biomaterials in a living body. The benefit of this method is that morphological and volume changes of implant materials can be evaluated without retrieve of the implant in an animal body, resulting in no killing of the animals and long term evaluation even more than one year. In this study, in situ techniques for observation of calcium phosphate cement is developed. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was implanted into a femur and under skin of a rat. The volume and morphology change of the CPC were repeatedly measured using the same rat for more than 12 months. The 3-dimentional (3-D) structures of the CPC were imaged and reconstructed from hundreds of 2-D cross sectional CT images, which were obtained at one time by a 360 degree rotation of the sample. The structure of the CPC was visualized with 3-D, and the volume were numerically analyzed by using a 3-D structure analyzing computer software, which enabled two-value processing and estimation of the quantities of the CPC. Moreover some of the CPC samples were retrieved and were observed by SEM. In the results, the surface of the calcium phosphate cement changed from smooth to jagged with increasing implanted period. The CPC volume implanted into bone was gradually decreased with increasing implanted period. The volume loss was 8 % after 12 months. The CPC volume under skin after 1 month increased by 7 %. After that the volume gradually decreased in next 3 months. Absorption process of CPC in a rat will be discussed.