Calcium phosphate-based glasses (PG) are of interest as both scaffold and delivery materials for tissue rebuilding because of their chemical similarity to bone. Since it is essential that these materials exhibit local and systemic biocompatibility and do not adversely affect host tissues, the present study was undertaken to examine the effects of PG containing different amounts of Ca on human T lymphocytes in vitro. This was carried out by measuring the effects of extracts of the PG on the direct and mitogen-induced activation of T cells from human peripheral blood, as well as assessing CD4 and CD8, surface antigens which define T-helper and T-suppressor cells, respectively. The results showed that DNA synthesis by resting T lymphocytes was unaffected by all the PG. However, extracts of the PG containing 24 mol% of Ca caused a very marked inhibition of mitogen-induced T cell activation. This PG also reduced both the resting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as activated CD8+ cells. In contrast, high Ca-PG significantly augmented DNA synthesis by mitogen-activated T cells. These experiments show that PG containing differing levels of Ca can have pronounced and differential effects on the activation and function of T lymphocytes in vitro.