This study evaluated periodontal repair and biomaterial reaction following implantation of a newly fabricated calcium aluminate bony cement incorporating LiF-maleic acid on the regeneration of 1-wall intrabony defects in the beagle dogs. The surgical control group received a flap operation only, while the experimental group was treated with calcium aluminate bony cement incorporating LiF-maleic acid. The subjects were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery and a comparative histologic analysis was done. In the experimental group, the grafted calcium aluminate cement was not absorbed and fibrous connective tissue was epithelized around the particles of the grafted bony cement. Because of certain favorable properties, such as its easy manipulation and its ability to maintain the morphology of the defect site by acting as a scaffold, the newly developed cement is suitable for us as a graft material, and could be used very effectively in alveolar augmentation. However, further study needs to be conducted before it can be used as a bone graft material for periodontal tissue regeneration.