This study describes an investigation of collagen sponge mechanically reinforced through the incorporation of poly(glycolic acid)(PGA) fiber. A collagen solution with PGA fiber homogeneously dispersed was freeze-dried, followed by dehydrothermal cross-linking to obtain collagen sponges incorporating PGA fiber. A collagen sponge without PGA fiber was prepared similarly by using the collagen solution. By scanning electron observation, the collagen sponges exhibited isotropic and interconnected pore structures with an average pore size of 180 µm, irrespective of PGA fiber incorporation. As expected, PGA fiber incorporation enabled the collagen sponge to significantly enhance the compression strength. In vitro cell culture studies revealed that the number of L929 fibroblasts initially attached was significantly greater for the collagen sponge incorporating PGA fiber than for the collagen sponge. In vitro cell proliferation studies revealed that the proliferation of cell was higher for the collagen sponge incorporating PGA fiber, by day 21, than the collagen sponge without PGA fiber. It is possible that shrinkage suppression results in the superior cell attachment and proliferation of sponge incorporating PGA fiber. After subcutaneous implantation into the backs of mice, the residual volume of collagen sponge incorporating PGA fiber was significantly large compared with that of collagen sponge. We concluded that the incorporation of PGA fiber is a simple way to reinforce collagen sponge without impairing the biocompatibility.