The sliding wear behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was examined on a novel low temperature degradation-free zirconia/alumina composite material and on the conventional ceramics (alumina and zirconia) used for a femoral head in total hip joint replacement. The wear of UHMWPE pins against these ceramic disks was evaluated by performing linear reciprocal sliding and repeat pass rotational sliding tests for one million cycles in a bovine serum. The weight loss of polyethylene against the novel low temperature degradation-free zirconia/alumina composite disks was much less than conventional ceramics for all tests. The mean weight loss of the polyethylene pins was more in the linear reciprocal sliding test than in the repeat pass rotational sliding test for all kinds of disk materials. Neither the coherent transfer film nor the surface damage was observed on the surface of the novel zirconia/alumina composite disks during the test. In conclusion, the novel zirconia/alumina composite leads the least wear of polyethylene among the tested ceramics and demonstrates the potential as the alternative materials for femoral head in total hip joint replacement.