Effects of some environmental factors on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of pipeline steel X-70 both in near-neutral pH environments, including NS4 solution and several solutions containing main types of soil in the eastern part of China, and in high pH solution were studied by means of electrochemical measurement and slow strain rate testing (SSRT). The anodic polarization curves showed different features in near-neutral pH and high pH solutions in terms of active-passive transition behavior. In near-neutral pH solutions, the cracking mode was transgranular with the feature of quasi-cleavage, the susceptibility to SCC increased with decreasing potential, pH and temperature as well as increasing CO2, indicating a dominant mechanism of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). In high pH solutions, the cracking behavior was similar to that in near-neutral pH solutions when the specimens were polarized at cathodic potentials, but quite different at anodic potentials. A comparison of the electrochemical behavior with the SCC potential region indicated a dominant SCC mechanism associated with anodic dissolution (AD) of X70 in high pH solution at anodic potentials. A preliminary experimental potential (E)-pH-SCC diagram has been established for X70 in near-neutral pH environments.