During the process of plunge grinding, a test piece can be axially grooved with thermocouple embedded, thermo-electromotive force will be conducted through collecting ring and then after A/D converting, data will be digitally acquired and online test will be realized. Based on the thermal theories, this paper presents a simple model to calculate the workpiece’s contact zone temperature during plunge grinding process. This model can be used to predict and calculate the grinding temperature easily. An empirical formula calculating the temperature of the grinding contact surface had been obtained through multivariate linear regression analysis experiments. The thermometric system showed in this paper had solved the knotty problem that the grinding temperature was very difficult to measure for plunge grinding. Compared with traditional method, the testing method adopted by the author will give more accurate result and more closely represent the test piece situation. The results of the computer simulation and the experiments proved the exactitude of the thermal model and the feasibility of the thermometric system.