For effective bone regeneration, various surface modifications have been tried. In an effort to improve osteogenic repair potential, we evaluated recombinant peptides containing the RGD domain as a bioactive molecule for tissue-engineered bone regeneration. The synthetic peptides slightly suppressed cellular proliferation in the in vitro culture system but induced favorable osteoblastic differentiation, which was determined by MTT and ALP activity staining, respectively. The synthetic peptide coated CMP granules, which were implanted into the mandibular bone defects showed more favorable bone repair compared to the non-coated CMP implantation. In addition, there were not any sign of inflammatory reaction. These findings suggest that synthesized peptides containing the RGD domain enhance cellular attachment and osteogenic activity in vivo condition and that the peptide-coated CMP granules can serve as a biocompatible bone substitute.