Alumina powder containing δ , δ crystal phases (designated δAP) showed osteoconductivity. δAP was manufactured by fusing pulverized alumina powder and quenching it. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate osteoconductivity of δAP using rat tibiae. Alumina powder containing αcrystal phase (designated αAP) was used as a reference material. These two types of alumina powder were packed into the intramedullary canals of rat tibiae to evaluate osteoconductivity, as determined by an affinity index. Rats were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The affinity index, equal to the length of bone in direct contact with the powder surface expressed as a percentage of the total length of the powder surface, was calculated for each alumina powder at each interval. At 4 and 8 weeks, the affinity indices for δAP were significantly higher than those for αAP. For both δAP and αAP, there were no significant differences between the values for 4 and 8 weeks. This study revealed that the osteoconductivity of δAP was due to the alumina’s δcrystal phases. δAP shows promise as a basis for developing a osteoconductive biomaterial.