A novel composite of biodegradable Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) with the deposition of the nanosized amorphous calcium phosphate (NCP) particles was developed as tissue engineering scaffold. To improve the minor intrinsic healing capacity of cartilage tissue, the porous composite with desired degradation rate was incorporated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and evaluated in the in vivo environment. Full-thickness defects were created in the weight-bearing surface of the femoral condyles in a rabbit model. The defect was filled with and without NCP/PLLA scaffold as a carrier of bFGF. Gross morphology for the test implant showed that the defect was filled with regenerated tissue. It resembled cartilaginous tissue and restored the contour of the condyle at 8 weeks after operation. For the untreated control, no cartilage-like tissue was observed at all defects. Histological analysis revealed neochondrogenesis and clusters of cartilaginous extracellular matrix observed with safranin-O staining at 4 weeks for the NCP/PLLA with bFGF treated defects. At 8 weeks after operation, well-formed and mature cartilage was resurfaced the defects. While only fibrous tissue replacement was observed for the control either at 4 or 8 weeks. Special staining for cartilage indicated the presence of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans and collagen, which were the major extracellular matrices of cartilage. This investigation showed the potential of NCP/PLLA loaded with bFGF in the study of in situ-transplantable carrier to improve healing of cartilage tissue lesion.