The grain size and its identity of abrasives are of high importance to obtain the damage-free and low roughness surfaces in traditional polishing processes. The undesirable scratches will appear on the surface of workpiece, if the grain size of abrasives is of high decentralization, or some abnormal larger grains or impurities are interfused in polishing process. And it is very difficult to polish curved surfaces. A new polishing technology, which is called as polishing with flotative abrasive balls, is put forward in this paper, in order to solve the problems mentioned above. Some primary experiments and theoretical analyses are carried out. It is found that the contact pressure between workpiece and abrasive grains may be easily controlled, as a result, the depth of cutting may also be easily controlled and it is not sensitive to the grain size of abrasives. The new technology may also be used in the polishing of curved surfaces.