A novel transparent polycrystalline silicon nitride was fabricated by hot-press sintering with MgO and AlN as additives. The mixed powder with 3 wt.% MgO and 9 wt.% AlN was sintered at 1900oC for 1 hour under 30 MPa pressure in a nitrogen gas atmosphere. Transparent polycrystalline silicon nitride was successfully fabricated. The mechanical properties such as density, hardness, young’s modulus, fracture strength and fracture toughness were evaluated. The effect of α/β phase on the mechanical properties of transparent polycrystalline silicon nitride was investigated. The properties were changed depending on the amount of α/β phase. The hardness and Young's modulus increased with increasing the volume fraction of α-phase fraction as a reflection of the higher hardness of α-phase Si3N4. The fracture toughness and fracture strength decreased with decreasing the volume fraction of β-phase Si3N4.