The effects of microstructure and composition on the wear properties of Lu sialon ceramics have been studied under dry sliding conditions through block-on-ring wear tests. Microstructural and compositional effects on wear behaviour were studied by producing both equiaxed and elongated α sialons through the incorporation of additional oxides to promote extended liquid formation and grain growth, and by producing α / β composite materials with elongated β grains. The wear response of the materials is discussed in terms of the dominant wear mechanism under different experimental conditions. Under higher loads, where fracture dominates, materials with improved mechanical properties show better wear resistance and both the composite materials and the elongated α sialons showed lower wear rates than the equiaxed materials due to the elongated grain microstructures. Under low normal loads, fracture does not occur and the dominant wear mechanism is thought to be tribochemically assisted wear. Under these conditions, the equiaxed materials had better wear resistance than the composites, and the Lu-α sialon showed an order of magnitude lower wear rate than an equivalent Y-α sialon, thought to be due to better oxidation resistance and improved refractory nature afforded through the use of the smaller radius cation. The elongated Lu-α sialons under these low load conditions showed wear resistance that was to some extent dependent on the composition of the additional liquid phase, with high SiO2 contents leading to higher wear rates.