The microstructure and mechanical properties including wear resistance of Al2O3-based nanocomposites with 5 vol% of Cu and Ni-Co dispersions were investigated. Al2O3/Cu and Al2O3/ Ni-Co nanocomposites were fabricated by hydrogen reduction and sintering process using metal oxide and metal nitrates. The composites showed homogeneous microstructures with nano-sized metal dispersions and enhanced fracture strength and toughness compared with monolithic Al2O3. In particular, high toughness and hardness were measured for the Al2O3/Ni-Co nanocomposite consolidated by PECS. A minimum wear coefficient of 2.33 x 10-5 mm3/Nm was obtained for the Al2O3/Ni-Co nanocomposite, while the monolithic Al2O3 showed a value of 2.0 x 10-5 mm3/Nm. Wear behavior is discussed in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.