We have developed a new environmentally friendly fabrication process for alumina ceramics using hydraulic alumina (HA) and water. Without the addition of an organic binder, alumina green bodies retained their original shapes by the hydration of HA in the green bodies. In the case of α-Al2O3-HA-H2O system, alumina ceramics with 97.8% theoretical density were obtained. Added water acted as a fugitive material in the hardened green body. In the case of HA-H2O system, porous alumina ceramics with a wide range of open porosity (56.6–69.1%) and narrow pore size distributions were fabricated without the use of organic fugitive materials. The results of evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry measurements showed that the new fabrication process for alumina ceramics was confirmed to be eco-friendly.