The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of the microstructural properties of trabecular bone in predicting its elastic modulus in the intertrochanteric region. A total of 15 trabecular bone core specimens were obtained from the proximal femurs of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to scan each specimen to obtain micro-morphology. Microstructural parameters were directly calculated using software. Micro-CT images were converted to micro-finite element model using meshing technique, and then micro-finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to assess the mechanical property (Young’s modulus) of trabecular bone. The results showed that the ability to explain this variance of Young’s modulus is improved by combining the structural indices with each other. It suggested that assessment of bone microarchitecture should be added as regards detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of the efficacy of drug treatments for osteoporosis.