The operation mode of thermal power plants has been changed from the base load to duty cycle. From the changeover, fossil power plants cannot avoid frequent thermal transient state, for example, start up and stop, which results in thermal fatigue damage at the heavy section components. The rotor is the highest capital cost component in steam turbine and requires long outage for replacing the new one. For optimized power plant operation life and inspection management of rotor is necessary. It is known as general that start-up and shutdown operation greatly affect on steam turbine life. The start-up operation condition is especially severe because of the rapid temperature and rotational speed increase, which causes damage and reduction of main components life of steam turbine. The start-up stress of rotor which is directly related life is composed of thermal and rotational stresses. The thermal stress is due to the variation of steam flow temperature and rotational stress is due to the rotation speed of itself. In this paper, the analysis method of start-up stress of rotor which considers simultaneously temperature and rotation speed transition is proposed, which includes a case study regarding 500MW fossil power plant steam turbine rotor. Also, the method of damage quantitative estimation of fatigue damage to operation condition is described. The method can be applied to find weak points to the fatigue damage. Using the method, total life consumption can be obtained, and can be also used for determining future operation mode and the life extension of old fossil power units.