This paper concerns the theoretical research of shear failure load of steel fiber reinforced ultra high performance cement composites (SFR-UHPCC) beam. Based on test investigation, an analytical model of prestressed SFR-UHPCC beam is constituted. Two formulae of ultimate failure load, i.e. the upper bound and the lower bound of shear loading capacity, all have been obtained according to the limit analysis of concrete plasticity. In the process of upper bound analysis, uniform distribution of steel fiber has been assumed, and virtual work induced by steel fiber has been divided into two parts, i.e. pulling-out virtual work and debonding virtual work. Five coefficients are introduced considering some defects. Twelve SFR-UHPCC beams with three kinds of shear span ratio i.e. 2.7, 5.6 and 8.5 are tested and compared with the results from the proposed equations.