A 3D anisotropic elastoplastic-damage model was presented based on continuum damage mechanics theory. In this model, the tensor decomposition technique is employed. Combined with the plastic yield rule and damage evolution, the stress tensor in incremental format is obtained. The derivate eigenmodes in the proposed model are assumed to be related with the uniaxial behavior of the rock material. Each eigenmode has a corresponding damage variable due to the fact that damage is a function of the magnitude of the eigenstrain. Within an eigenmodes, different damage evolution can be used for tensile and compressive loadings. This model was also developed into finite element code in explicit format, and the code was integrated into the well-known computational environment ABAQUS using the ABAQUS/Explicit Solver. Numerical simulation of an uniaxial compressive test for a rock sample is used to examine the performance of the proposed model, and the progressive failure process of the rock sample is unveiled.