Dynamic response and fracture of high strength boride/alumina ceramic composite were investigated by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiment in this paper. The compressive stress–strain curves and dynamic compression strength of the composites were tested. The surface’s microstructure of fractured composites were examined by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the fracture mechanism. The results show that boride/alumina has high dynamic compressive strength and high Young’s modulus. The main fracture mode of the material is the fracture of the ceramic grains. The micro-voids and flaws, generated during the sintering and manufacturing of material and mechanical process of specimen, decrease the strength of the material because they provide the source of crack expansion when the material undergoes the dynamic loadings.