The objective of this paper is to investigate failure characteristics of SA508 carbon steel in ductile-brittle transition temperature region. To achieve this goal, a series of finite element analyses as well as fracture toughness tests are performed for pre-cracked V-notch specimens. An assessment of failure probabilities is, then, carried out employing Weibull stress models with different rank probability options. Finally, a prototype of toughness scale diagram is derived through comparison of estimated fracture toughness data with those for compact tension specimens. The present results can be utilized to found a basis of realistic integrity evaluation on major nuclear components containing defect.