The diesel engine cylinder was processed by laser honing (LH) device, the structure morphology was observed with scanning electric mirror (SEM), and lubricant consumes and wear performances were measured, at the same time the mechanism of LH and effects of laser parameters on LH results were analyzed. The experimental results are shown that LH is a kind of phase transformation treatment by laser, which processes a hardening belt in the certain distributing form on the work-piece surface, and forms the hardness distribution of soft and hard material alternatively; LH may lower the engine oil consumes 30%-60%, and reduce the pollution of the catalyst machine, and lower the grain let of the engine oil 25%-30%. LH intentionally machines the grain cave, which has the certain angle, depth, and width etc.. The surface microcosmic sculpting has the lubricating function for usage process, and storage and transport lubricant, which improves the rubbing condition, then lower the part wear and increase the other performances. The short-wave laser is more applicable to the LH process, which improves the lubrication condition, and increases the service life of the engine and the efficiency, and lowers the engine oil consumes.