Based on the single abrasive particle motion locus of elliptical spiral in two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration grinding (WTDUVG), the theoretical model representing the material removal rate are deduced and verified, and the reason of high efficiency material removal by applying two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration is analyzed. Finally, experimental researches on material removal rate of ceramics were carried out using coarse grit diamond wheel both with and without workpiece two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration assistance grinding. Experimental results indicated that (1) Material removal rate (MRR) in vibration grinding process is about 1.5 times as large as that of in conventional grinding, the experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated ones. (2)The material removal rate increases along with increases of the grinding depth and workpiece velocity both in with and without vibration grinding. (3)The vibration grinding surface had no spur and build-up edge and its surface roughness was smaller than CG significantly. Surface quality of WTDUVG is superior to that of conventional grinding, it is easy for ultrasonic vibration grinding that material removal mechanism is ductile regime grinding.