The cartilage tissue engineering is an inspiring and profitable way for the reconstruction of cartilage defects, but it has been hampered by two large obstacles: how to get qualified seed cells and credible scaffold. This study aimed to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) by loading them on alginate gel. In this study, the compounds of SD rat BMSCs and alginate gel were injected on the dorsum of rats subcutaneously. The implantations were harvested and examined by histological and immunohistochemical examination, in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy at different time points after the operations. The results showed that the compounds of BMSCs and alginate gel are promising for cartilage tissue engineering applications.