Since 2001, we have started tissue engineered approach for hard tissue repair using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from patient’s bone marrow. MSCs were culture expanded on culture dish, then applied on various ceramics including hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics. The MSCs on the ceramics were further cultured in osteogenic media to induce osteognenic differentiation. The differentiation resulted in appearance of bone forming osteoblasts as well as bone matrix on the ceramics, thus we could fabricate the tissue engineered bone. We have reported that the tissue engineered bone is effective for treatment of large bone defect, which is difficult to repair only with artificial materials such as HA ceramics. The present study focused on osteogenic capability of cryopreserved human MSCs derived from patients who already were treated by the tissue engineered bone. The MSCs showed high alkaline phosphatase activity together with abundant bone matrix formation when cultured in osteogenic media. The MSCs also showed in vivo new bone formation when implanted at subcutaneous sites of athymic nude rats. Based on the results, we concluded that the tissue engineering approach is a reliable method to be used in hard tissue regeneration.