This paper reports synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by three precipitation methods. Homogeneous aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2 and H3PO4 was used as precursor solution, and NH3•H2O was precipitator. Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite nanorods were obtained by adding the precipitator into precursor solution, near stoichiometric hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were derived from adding precursor solution into the precipitator, and smaller hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared by adding precipitator and precursor solution simultaneously into a reaction vessel. The stoichiometry of hydroxyapatite was mainly affected by pH at precipitation reaction process. The crystal size and shape of hydroxyapatite particles was related to Ostwald ripening. The stoichiometry and morphology of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be controllable by selecting suitable coprecipitation process.