Zirconia ceramics have been widely used for new generation of bearing materials in biomedical applications. In this context, a zirconia-matrix, stabilized with cerium oxide and dispersed with fine alumina particles (Ce-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposite) was recently developed and this material experienced significant improvements in both fracture toughness and strength above the standard mechanical performance of monolithic zirconia. In this paper, we used confocal Raman spectroscopy to provide quantitative assessments with high spatial resolution of phase structure and residual stress fields developed in the Ce-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposite. According to confocal Raman spectroscopy, we have directly visualized patterns of phase transformation and residual stress fields stored on the very surface of the material around an indentation print. These spectroscopic assessments may open a perspective in understanding the micromechanical behavior of the Ce-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposite when subjected to local surface impingement and shocks.