Collagen (Col) and chitosan (Chi) are both natural polymers and have received extensive investigation in recent years in the field of tissue engineering, but there are few reports on the introduction of hydroxyapatite (HA) into the Col-Ch system. In this study, based on the miscibility of these two polymers under proper condition, hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesis in the Col-Chi system by in-situ co-precipitate method to give rise to a novel nanocomposite. The structural characterization of such Col-Ch-HA nano-materials was carried out by using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA analyses with main components and Col-Chi samples used for comparison. It was found that there exist interactions between Col and Chi molecules. The nucleation and growth of inorganic phase occurs in the Col-Chi system and final products are uniform dispersion of nano-sized HA in the Col-Chi network without obvious phase separation. This novel nanocomposite would be a promising material for bone tissue engineering.