Two starting collagens, sponge and floc collagen, were used to prepare collagen/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composites. The resulting composites were porous and had 200μm pore size. However, there was a difference in the microstructure of the pore walls for the composites derived from the two collagens, the pore walls in sponge collagen/TCP composite were still porous and had 200 nm micropores size, TCP particles were trapped in collagen matrices. While floc collagen/TCP composite had smooth and dense walls in which TCP particles were embedded. The difference could be attributed to the starting collagen with different status. Sponge collagen has a soft structure, which easily becomes disassembled fibrils during alkali treatment, the disassembled fibrils are integrated again to form a dense morphology for pore walls after freeze-drying. While floc collagen has already a low disassembly degree, the alkali treatment could not be able to separate the fibrils, this remains as micropores in pore walls after freeze-drying. Both porous composites are significant in bone tissue engineering or regeneration. MTT test results showed the two composites had good cytocompatibility, and sponge collagen/TCP composite was somewhat better than floc collagen/TCP composite, which could result from that micropores derived roughness in pore walls of sponge collagen/TCP composite is suitable for cell growth.