Thermal vibration characteristics of the composite thin-cylindrical shell embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers are investigated. The shape memory alloy material behavior is programmed in the form of an ABAQUS user subroutine code (UMAT), and this program is successfully verified by using the response of pseudoelasticity and the shape memory effect (SME) at various temperatures and stress levels. Based on the ABAQUS UMAT code, the natural frequency of the composite thin-cylindrical shell embedded with SMA wires under thermal load and mechanical load is calculated respectively. Then the effects of the SMA wire temperature and the content on the thermal vibration characteristics of the structure are discussed. Numerical simulation results show that the temperature and the volume content of the SMA wires increase the stiffness and buckling critical load of the structure.