This article introduces a process for the growth of one-dimensional oxide nanomaterials that combines rheological phase reaction and hydrothermal self-assembling process. Fundamentals and practical approaches of hydrothermal self-assembling process and rheological phase reaction are briefly described. Particular attention is devoted to the rheological self-assembling for the growth of low dimensional oxide nanomaterials. Many examples are shown that the rheological self-assembling is an effective method to prepare one-dimensional nanomaterials, organic-inorganic hybrids and 1-D nanomaterial array for optical-electronic and electrochemical devices and catalysis. Morphologies, microstructures, properties, and application of one-dimensional oxide nanomaterials are reviewed.