A slurry pot tester was used to evaluate the erosion behavior of alumina (Al2O3), zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA), and silicon nitride ceramics. The eroded surface of sample was studied by scanning electronic microscope and the primary erosion wear mechanisms for ceramic materials were analyzed. On the same experimental condition, erosion wear resistance of materials follows this rule: Si3N4>ZTA>Al2O3. The key factor affecting erosive wear performance of ceramics is their microstructure. The primary erosive wear mechanisms for Al2O3, ZTA and Si3N4 ceramics are lateral crack propagation, whole grains pulled out and plastic deformation. The erosive wear performance of Si3N4 ceramic is the best in this experiment, due to their microstructure morphology with elongated grains.