The machining performance of Al2O3 ceramics is studied by abrasive waterjet (AWJ) milling experiment. The machined surface characteristics and the effect of process parameters on machined surface quality are analyzed. The results showed that the nozzle traverse speed and traverse feed have a strong effect on the machined surface quality. The effect of process parameters on material volume removal rate and the milling depth is also researched. The results indicated that the material volume removal rate and the milling depth would be increased at the milling conditions of higher water pressure and bigger standoff distance. However, the milling depth will decrease at the milling conditions of higher traverse speed and higher traverse feed, and the material volume removal rate has a complex variation.