The dynamic response of polycrystalline alumina were investigated in the pressure range of 0-13Gpa by planar impact experiments. Manganin gauges were employed to obtain the stress-time histories. From the free surface particle velocity profiles indicate the dispersion of the “plastic” wave for alumina. Using path line principle of Lagrange Analysis the dynamic mechanical behaviors for alumina under impact loading are analyzed, such as nonlinear, strain rate dependence, dispersion and declination of shock wave in the material. A damage model applicable to ceramics subjected to dynamic compressive loading is developed. The model is based on the damage micromechanics and established on wing crack nucleation and growth. The results of the dynamic damage evolution model are compared to the experimental results and a good correlation is obtained.