Rod shaped nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite (HAp) were synthesized by a low temperature chemical route involving calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and sodium phosphate. Three types of alkyl ammonium bromide surfactants i.e. tetrapropylammonium bromide, tetraethylammonium bromide and tetramethylammonium bromide were used to regulate the nucleation and crystal growth. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. The effect of the various alkyl ammonium bromide surfactants on the phase formation, particle size and morphology of the hydroxyapatite powders has been investigated and reported.