Effect of nitriding on fatigue crack initiation and growth rate has been studied on Ni-Cr-Mo steel. Specimens were nitrided for 15hr at 680°C. The fatigue limit of nitrided specimens were superior to those of annealed(680°C, 15 hr) specimens. Based on detailed observations of slip band and micro crack initiation, it is concluded that the excellent fatigue limit of nitrided specimens is attributed to improved slip initiation resistance by nitriding. The characteristic of fatigue crack growth rate of nitrided specimens was investigated by comparing with those of annealed specimens. It was found that by nitriding the crack growth rate was markedly decreased and the threshold stress intensity factor range was improved. It is concluded that the excellent fatigue limit of nitrided specimens is also attributed to improved fatigue crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity factor range by nitriding.