Damage probability is a new concept in modern engineering design. If the cumulative damage probability of member or material is known, then the rational design can be realized. Based on study of high-strength and high-performance (HSHP) concrete applied to steel reinforced concrete (SRC) structures, the equation of the cumulative damage probability of HSHP concrete is derived by Weibull theory. The calculation and analysis indicate that the theoretical equation presented give a suitably mathematical limit for damage probability of specimens. At the same time, the new method for Weibull parameters is established, which depends on the theory of the damage probability and computer graphics technology. The comparison of experimental curves with theoretical curves shows that the established equation can properly simulate the damage evolution of HSHP concrete. Them value, one of Weibull parameters, is studied in detail, which reveals that it is a key parameter to quality control. At last, the effect of specimen volume upon damage probability is also discussed. The research provides methods and ideas to improve performance of concrete material and simulate damage probability of HSHP concrete.