Materials characterization is a crucial issue in the development and application of new materials. Materials characterization aims to mine and acquire characteristic information and their evolution in the materials. It mainly includes three important topics which are microstructural characterization, properties characterization, and environmental degradation. In this paper, characterization techniques about these topics were discussed for C/SiC composites and a characterization system was preliminarily established. All these characterization research and their results further the better understanding of the relationship between microstructure and properties and of the failure mechanisms in the C/SiC composites.