The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of the X-ray diffraction method for the fatigue life assessment of high-temperature steel pipes used for main steam pipelines, re-heater pipelines and headers etc. in power plants. In this study, X-ray diffraction tests were performed on the specimens simulated for low cycle fatigue damage, in order to estimate fatigue properties at the various stages of fatigue life. As a result of X-ray diffraction tests, it was confirmed that the full width at the half maximum (FWHM) decreased with an increase in the fatigue life ratio, and that the FWHM and the residual stress due to fatigue damage were algebraically linearly related to the fatigue life ratio. From this relationship, a direct assessment of the remaining fatigue life was feasible.