Pieces of large-scale equipment such as a ball mill system are subjected to heavy and alternate loads under the worst working conditions, which result in higher fault rates. However, since such equipment exerts important functions to the economy and industry, it isn’t recommendable to halt production in order to detect the defects under unconfirmed faults. We explore a reliable and practical fault diagnosis scheme for the ball mill system that is widely used in the building material industry. With utilizing the signal acquisition and process system of vibration, the field testing and analysis are performed based on the violent vibration of an edge-transmission Φ3×11m ball mill system. The primary diagnosis that is based on the configuration of the transmission system and foundation stiffness is found, and a feasible resolution scheme is obtained, so that the optimal and economic reform scheme is determined. The detailed scheme has been adopted by the production industry. This study that is based on the fault diagnosis of the edgetransmission ball mill system has a comprehensive significance of theory and reality. This provides a larger basis for vibration inspection and fault diagnosis in building material industries.