Ti(C, N)-based cermet cutting tools were prepared by vacuum sintering and tested in dry machining of normalized medium carbon steel (AISI1045) at various combinations of cutting speed (Vc), feed rate (f), and depth of cut (ap). And the wear mechanism was investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). Comparing to the cemented carbide YT15 and cermet TN20, the newly fabricated cermet tools exhibited better performance and higher wear resistance. For Ti(C, N)-based cermet tools, the wear mechanism was predominantly controlled by the flank wear under all cutting condition. It was found that the removal of the ceramic grain and abrasive wear were the main source of tools failure. In addition, adhesion and oxidation were also observed.