A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to simulate laser truing and dressing of bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheel. Based on the model, the ablation depth produced on bond and diamond abrasives by an acousto-optic Q-switched YAG pulsed laser under different parameters as well as the temperature field on grinding wheel surface produced in the laser ablation process are numerically simulated. An experimental study on laser truing and dressing of grinding wheel is also conducted. In the study, the wheel surface is ablated by the single-pulsed laser and measured with a measurement device for surface topographic information. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results indicate that the truing and dressing processes can be simultaneously realized with the laser ablation as a single process.