The new thought for designing the multi-phase and multi-scale nanocomposites was proposed to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties. Multi-phase and multi-scale particles are added to the matrix, and one of the additives is nano-scale particle, thus the comprehensive mechanical properties can be improved by the synergic effects of micro-scale toughening, nano-scale strengthening and mutual benefit between multi-phases. The ideal microstructure of multi-phase and multi-scale nanocomposites was designed. With this microstructure, the trans/intergranular fracture modes can be formed, which will consume more fracture energy during the crack propagation, therefore, both the flexural strength and fracture toughness can be improved. An advanced ceramic tool material has been fabricated based on this new thought.