For precision grinding, especially the aspheric grinding, the vibrations of wheel and workpiece have great impact on workpiece accuracy and roughness with special waviness. This paper firstly studies the relationship between grinding parameters and surface quality. Then according to the two kinds of aspheric machining mode: grinding with equal step feeding and grinding with equal angle feeding, the corresponding surface equations and vibration equations after grinding are given in this paper. Moreover, the specific analysis of aspheric surface model and surface waviness are also discussed for parameters optimization. The grinding experiments are done to support the theoretical research. The comparison between theoretical waviness analysis and experimental results shows good matching.