Osteoinductivity of hydroxyapatite (HA) was investigated using uncommitted pluripotent mouse stem cells, C3H10T1/2 in an in vitro differentiation assay. HA exhibited impressive ability to induce expression of osteo-specific genes in C3H10T1/2, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL1) and osteocalcin (OCN); compared with its insignificant up-regulation of the same genes in osteoblast-like cells, Saos-2. HA osteoinductivity exhibited in C3H10T1/2 was comparable to that of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) with reference to up-regulating osteo-specific genes except the core binding factor 1 (Cbfa1, Runx). This result implies a difference in osteogenic induction pathway initiated by HA and BMP. HA osteoinductivity was also demonstrated in the stem cells culture using conditioned medium derived from cells cultured on HA substrates. The medium exhibited excellent ability to up-regulate ALP without the presence of HA and BMP. The result suggests that the HA can interact with the cells and generate potent inductive substance released into the medium. Such substance in turn is able to induce uncommitted cells to differentiate into the osteolineage.