Osteoblasts were perceived as pivotal cells, recognized as the cells that control both the formative and the resorptive phases of the bone remodeling cycle. Osteoblasts were an essential requirement for osteoclastogenesis though expressing or secreating bioactive osteoclast-differentiation-regulatory proteins, osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF)was the most important factor among these, ODF participate nearly in every step of differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. In addition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)and its receptors LFA-1 play a role in osteoclast development by affecting adhesion between stromal cells and osteoclast progenitors before the occurrence of ODF-ODF receptor signaling. However, it is not clear about the relationship between ODF, ICAM-1 expression of osteoblasts and differentiation state of osteoblasts. So,the aim of this study was to investgate whether the expression of ODF, ICAM-1 depended on the stage of osteoblastic differentiation from rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(rBMSCs). The viability of rBMSCs is reduced significantly by osteogenic inducement as differentiating into osteoblasts, ALPase activity of OS-treated rBMSCs was enhanced obviously within 9 days , declined subsequently and recovered nearly the original level at day 14. Expression of ODF is enhanced with osteogenic differentiation guadully. whereas, expression of ICAM-1 is activated at OS-treated day 6, then keeping at a stable level. This study indicated that rBMSCs undergoing osteogenic inducement was an ideal model for studying the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts. During the early stage of differentiation along osteoblasts from stem cells to osteocytes, rBMSCs or Osteoprogenitor react somewhat differently from osteoblasts, suggesting the ability of osteoblasts to regulating differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts have been improved with osteogenic culture.