We studied the role of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6,IL-1β, TGF-β) as markers of osteolysis in patients who underwent to a hip prosthesis implantation subdivided in two groups: group A with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) insert articulating against a metal ball head , and group B with an all alumina ceramic combination. Profibrogenic (TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6,IL-1β) are secreted by the periprosthetic synovial-like fibrous membrane in hip artificial implants. They are secreted by inflammatory activated cells and trigger the cascade of biochemical events leading to the activation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. A statistically significant increase of TGF-β serum levels was observed between TGF-β values in implanted patients as compared to normal subjects and between TGF-β values after versus before implantation in Group A. A progressive decrease in TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels has been observed in both Groups, when compared with the initial values before the implantation. IL-1β levels decreased up to 60 months after the implantation Our data suggest that monitoring circulating cytokines could be a good indicator for the proliferation and activity of the periprosthetic synovial-like membrane and potential osteolysis. This could allow for an adequate early treatment.